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本文摘要:Scientists have found the key to artificial life after creating yeast from manmade DNA.在用人造DNA生产出有酵母之后,科学家们关上了一扇通向人工生命的大门。


Scientists have found the key to artificial life after creating yeast from manmade DNA.在用人造DNA生产出有酵母之后,科学家们关上了一扇通向人工生命的大门。The synthetic yeast could be used to create painkillers biofuel bread better able to withstand high temperatures and cheaper beer for the brewing industry.制备酵母可以用来生产止痛药、生物燃料、面包,更加能为酿酒业获取廉价而耐高温的啤酒。


More importantly yeast shares a quarter of its genes with humans so may allow biologists to build whole sections of DNA to prevent devastating diseases like cystic fibrosis.最重要的是,这些酵母有四分之一的基因与人类基因完全相同,生物学家以此可分解一整个DNA两组,用作防治囊性纤维化一类的可怕疾病。Artificial yeast could be used for bread-baking as it is more resistant to high temperatures.人工酵母对高温的承受能力更加强劲,可以很好地用作烘培,It could also make beer brewing cheaper by using yeast which is more tolerant to alcohol.它对酒精的耐受性也更高,需要使酿酒过程显得更为经济,It could also be used to manufacture painkillers antibiotics and biofuels which separate studies show could replace petrol and jet fuel.还用作生产止痛药、抗生素,以及被普遍指出可以替代传统燃料的生物燃料。

Bakers yeast is similar to human cells but simpler and easier to study.烘培用的酵母与人类细胞相近,但其结构更加非常简单,更容易研究。Synthetic DNA created in the same way could be used to replace faulty DNA which causes diseases like cystic fibrosis and Downs syndrome.用某种程度方法生产的人工合成DNA可以用来替换缺失DNA,缺失DNA不会造成例如囊胞性纤维症和唐氏综合症这样的疾病。An international team of scientists successfully replaced almost a third of the genetic material in bakers yeast after creating five new synthetic chromosomes with DNA made from chemicals in the laboratory.一个国际科学家团队用实验室化学合成的DNA生产了五个新的制备染色体,已顺利更换了烘培酵母差不多三分之一的基因材料。

The team including researchers from Imperial College in London yesterday announced they plan to create entirely manmade yeast by the end of the year.这个包括有伦敦帝国理工学院研究者的团队在昨天宣告,他们计划到年底前生产出有几乎人造的酵母。The breakthrough will reignite the debate over GM food as artificial yeast could in future be used to make bread more nutritious.这个突破不会新的引发转基因食品的争辩,因为人造酵母在未来可以使面包更加有营养。It also raises fears over bioterrorism as the same DNA-swapping methods could be harnessed to create extra deadly viruses.这某种程度带给了对生物恐怖主义的忧虑,因为完全相同的DNA互相交换方法可以用来生产更加有杀伤力的病毒。However the researchers involved say it is a major milestone in the race to create the first fully artificial complex living organism.但是,涉及研究者说道,第一次仅有制备一个简单的活性微生物是一个极大的里程碑。


They not only inserted new DNA into yeast but removed that which was unnecessary showing scientists can speed up evolution by taking the building blocks of life and rearranging them.他们不仅将新的DNA放入酵母,而且去除了一些不必要的DNA,结果显示科学家可以利用生命的结构模块(DNA),同时利用这些模块的重新排列来加快演化。